XX is the XXth reference in the list of references. This is important because most AN storage facilities in the United States are similarly inadequate in their fire safety. Mechanisms for the reactions of interest are proposed.
Effect of ammonia on the thermal decomposition of ammonium nitrate. Detonation velocity, Guerney's energy and limits of detonability of such mixtures have been measured. The formation of nitrous oxide in this system can thus be considered as a dehydration of the ammonium nitrate acid analógon, yielding in a first step nitramid or imido nitric acid and in a second step N20. Beirut ammonium nitrate explosion: Are not we really learning anything? it in a third party non-RSC publication you must
Bretherick, L. Handbook of Reactive Chemical Hazards. Regression rates of the solid oxidizer were measured by a linear variable displacement transducer as a function of fuel flow rate.
Find more information on this substance at: http://www.epa.gov/oem/docs/chem/AN_advisory.pdf/. and you may need to create a new Wiley Online Library account.
The pH of the salt decreased from 5.2 to 3.5 during the first 2 hours of heating and then remained essentially constant.
The first results are as follows: heating in the absence of catalyst shows the quantitative only endothermic vaporization of water and AN have been evidenced into ammonia and nitric acid even at high temperature. On the Influence of the Ammonium Nitrate(V) Provenance on Its Usefulness for the Manufacture of ANFO Type Explosives. However, some types of ammonium nitraet fertilizers containing a small percentage of chlorides (e.g., potassium chloride) undergo a smoldering (self-sustaining) decomposition that can spread throughout the mass to produce substantial toxic fumes, even when the initial heat source is removed. Contamination from inorganic sources, notably chlorides is better understood and some mechanisms have been studied. All monometallic catalysts (supported Pt, Fe, Cu or Zn) present a true catalytic decomposition reaction linked to exothermic peaks. Ammonium nitrate (AN) is one of the main nitrogen fertilizers used in fertilization programs. This evaluation supports the use of the M06-2X functional as the best option for the study of ammonium nitrate decomposition and related reactions.
AN mixed with carbon that is oxidized by nitric acid (HNO3), such as activated carbon (AC), burned at 1 MPa. 491-20. The decomposition rate of pure NH4NO3 climbed during the first 2 hours until it was equivalent to a weight loss per hour of about 5.5% of the original sample. In all cases the Ref. Whatever the catalyst (PtAl, PtCuAl-NR or PtZnAl-NR), the results obtained using a dynamic reactor reveal the presence of the same gaseous and condensed products: major nitrogen and nitric acid and no oxygen; the formation of nitrogen oxides NO and N2O depends on the catalyst nature: minor for PtAl and medium for PtCuAl-NR and PtZnAl-NR.
In a confined space, the pressure can reach dangerous levels and cause an explosion that will include the detonation of the ammonium nitrate. Ammonium nitrate has been used for centuries in warfare, but is also a mainstay of commercial nitrogenous fertilizers. Even at typical burning surface temperatures (350 °C), gas-phase reactions involving nitramide and nitric acid play a significant role.
From the DSC result, AN/AC/CuO had a higher onset temperature and a lower heat of reaction than AN/AC. Register to receive personalised research and resources by email, Review on Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate, Department of Chemistry , Kachchh University , Kachchh , Bhuj , India, /doi/full/10.1080/07370652.2011.573523?needAccess=true. The effect of additives like oxides, cations, inorganic acids, organic compounds, phase-stablized CuO, etc., is discussed. These have, thus far, not produced guidance useful for promoting of safety from fire‐related causes. However, some additional reaction steps and mechanisms have been identified and these are discussed.
Bimetallic catalysts M-M'/Al2O3-Si (M, M' = Fe, Cu, Zn, Pt) have been evaluated too. Hazardous scenarios with ammonium nitrate can involve simple thermal decomposition initiated by external fire or other heating, self-sustained decomposition also known as "cigar burning," and detonation. Details of necessary fire safety measures and the effectiveness and utility of existing regulations for AN are examined. to reproduce figures, diagrams etc. Working off-campus? In order to obtain a better understanding of the combustion characteristics of ammonium nitrate (AN) and carbon (C) mixtures (AN/C), burning tests and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) were performed. This reaction takes place at a temperature of over 300°C. Despite hundreds of papers on the topic that have appeared in the intervening years, understanding of decomposition mechanisms remains only modestly more complete than it was in Berthelot's day. article provided that the correct acknowledgement is given with the reproduced material.
Authors contributing to RSC publications (journal articles, books or book chapters)
Thermal stability of ammonium nitrate in high-temperature coal seam, Phase Stability of Ammonium Nitrate with Organic Potassium Salts, Combustion simulations of aqueous urea ammonium nitrate monofuel at high pressures, Nitrato d'ammonio: un secolo di esplosioni, Review on Thermal Decomposition of Ammonium Nitrate, Combustion of Energetic Materials Controlled by Condensed-Phase Reactions, Extinguishing fires involving ammonium nitrate stock with water: Possible complications, The ammonium nitrate explosion at West, Texas: A disaster that could have been avoided, The West, Texas, ammonium nitrate explosion: A failure of regulation, Note sur la decomposition du nitrate d'ammoniaque (note on the decomposition of ammonium nitrate), Identification of Thermal Decomposition Products and Reactions for Liquid Ammonium Nitrate on the Basis of Ab Initio Calculation: THERMAL DECOMPOSITION PRODUCTS AND REACTIONS FOR LIQUID NH 4 NO 3, Theoretical and Experimental Study of the Reaction between Ammonium Nitrate and Sodium Salts. Number of times cited according to CrossRef: Effects of copper oxide and sulfuric acid on the pyrolysis behavior of ammonium nitrate under thermal radiation experiments. As part of a continuing study of nitrogen loss during the drying of mixed fertilizers, the rate of decom-position of NH4NO3 at 225° C. was investigated by determining the loss in weight, the composition of the residue, and the change in pH for pure NH4NO3 and simple mixtures containing NH4NO3.
S. Cagnina, P. Rotureau, G. Fayet and C. Adamo, Laboratoire d'Electrochimie, Chimie des Interfaces et Modélisation pour l'Energie, CNRS UMR-7575, Ecole Nationale Supérieure de Chimie de Paris Chimie Paris-Tech, 11 rue P. et M. Curie, 75231 Paris Cedex 05, France, Institut National de l'Environnement Industriel et des Risques (INERIS), Parc Technologique Alata, BP2, 60550 Verneuil-en-Halatte, France, Institut Universitaire de France, 103 Boulevard Saint Michel, F-75005 Paris, France, Instructions for using Copyright Clearance Center page. However, technologies exist that can make AN less likely to explode, and to show greatly reduced explosion intensity, if driven to explosion. Ammonium nitrate NH4NO3 (AN) is a proposed candidate for energetic ionic liquids and solid propellants.
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