215–220), often cited as evidence of cataract operations, most likely refers to scarifications in the eye region for relief of certain diseases of the eye. The regional toponym Mesopotamia (/ˌmɛsəpəˈteɪmiə/, Ancient Greek: Μεσοποταμία '[land] between rivers'; Arabic: بِلَاد ٱلرَّافِدَيْن‎ Bilād ar-Rāfidayn or Arabic: بَيْن ٱلنَّهْرَيْن‎ Bayn an-Nahrayn; Persian: میان‌رودان‎ miyân rudân; Syriac: ܒܝܬ ܢܗܪܝܢ‎ Beth Nahrain "land of rivers") comes from the ancient Greek root words μέσος (mesos, 'middle') and ποταμός (potamos, 'river') and translates to '(land) between rivers'. 14 (1952). See A. Leo Oppenheim. The same is said of the region of the Hyperboreans. I’m personally very interested in studying the Egyptian civilization and knowing all the aspect... Noah builds the ark - undated mankind94 [upon the…] of the upper level of the ‘earth’.” Then follows a reference to the Apsû “He installed his father Ea in the […] of the middle part of the ’earth. II (Leipzig. The connection of the topographical name with māšul māštu (“twin”) is also suggested by the Ugaritic passage speaking of the “two hills at the border of the netherworld” (tlm gśr ars). 13 (gifts from Babylon), 14 (from Egypt), and 22 and 25 (from Mitanni) — are the best examples of such lists. Although the beliefs described above were held in common among Mesopotamians, there were also regional variations. [17] Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere around the turn of the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BC (the exact dating being a matter of debate),[18] but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary, and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century AD. This is well attested for the sun god, for whom Marduk installed two gates, in the east and in the west (Epic of Creation V 9), but it is not attested for the moon. The Interpretation of Dreams in the Ancient Near East (Philadelphia, 1956). They bear testimony to the competence with which these people worked gold,216 silver, copper, bronze, iron, and even anti-mony, in various distinct techniques. They speak of “the abolished gods that live on islands in the sea.”37 and also of the flood hero UtnapiŠtim, and of King Sargon of Akkad and his adversary Nūr-Dagan, all located at or concerned with the very rim of the worlds38 as well as of wild and foreign animals, even of people(?)] This instrument appears hundreds of times throughout Mesopotamian history and again in ancient Egypt from the 18th dynasty onwards in long- and short-neck varieties. 30. [43], The geography of southern Mesopotamia is such that agriculture is possible only with irrigation and good drainage, a fact which has had a profound effect on the evolution of early Mesopotamian civilization. For certain changes in this respect, see n. 163. 2140 B.C.) coming from the archives of the “Great Organizations,” temple and palace; in the same archives the only segments of the “subsistence” level that are recorded are those that pertain to the large-scale agricultural activities (and related manufacturing procedures) that formed the economic basis of the temple and palace “households.” Many other segments of the “subsistence” level are rather poorly attested. D. State whether the following are true or false. The architects (šitimgallu and itinnu) worked with measuring rods, pegs, and ropes to lay out the foundations. Mesopotamian religion was polytheistic, worshipping over 2,100 different deities,[16] many of which were associated with a specific state within Mesopotamia, such as Sumer, Akkad, Assyria or Babylonia, or a specific Mesopotamian city, such as; (Ashur), Nineveh, Ur, Nippur, Arbela, Harran, Uruk, Ebla, Kish, Eridu, Isin, Larsa, Sippar, Gasur, Ekallatum, Til Barsip, Mari, Adab, Eshnunna and Babylon. ; and an eclipse of the moon in two letters from Man. Similar concepts exist in the Old Testament; the “bottles of heaven” in Job 38;37; the “windows of heaven” in Gen. 7;1 1 and 8;2, the opening of which spells abundance for the country (2 Kings 7;2 and 19. [46] From this point forwards, warfare was incorporated into the Mesopotamian political system. Question 8. 3 (Chicago. Of the other fields of technology, only ceramics and textiles have come under closer scrutiny.160 Such ample and explicit evidence as human apparel has been left practically untouched,161 notwithstanding all the statuary, reliefs, and murals that could serve as illustration, together with the abundant evidence provided by texts.

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