The basic layout of large Harappan cities and towns shows a regular orientation. Urban Cities: The Indus civilization flourished around cities. was either a meeting hall or a market place. For more such informative articles stay tuned to OWN TV. The ruins of the cities, so far unearthed, show remarkable town planning, and excellent system of drainage and sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilization. the street. which appears to have been the house of the governor. The courtyard, which was usually paved with bricks laid flat, was surrounded by chambers and doors and windows opened into it. Although the general principles of Harappan town-planning were followed here too, yet there were some significant departures from the established norms. Town Planning was done for the benefit of the people by providing basic amenities and standardized living. That portion of the buildings where contamination with water was possible, burnt bricks were used. This elaborate drainage system, like the town-planning, constitutes a notable point of difference with Sumer, where the inhabitants had, in most cases, vertical pottery drainage shafts beneath their courtyards, but these had no outlet. Attached to the granary were two roomed tenements with a common courtyard. In the citadel the most impressive buildings Ordinary houses very rarely had windows in their outer walls. For other parts sun-dried bricks were used. Lanes were joined with the streets. The idea of a street grid seemed perfectly organized, as per the needs and the requirement of people. Most of the bricks were of equal size. The fortifications also provided protection against floods and served as the hallmark of social authority over the area they commanded. Social and Economic Life of Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization), Political Developments during the Later Vedic Age, Social and Economic Life during the Later Vedic Period, Town Planning System of Indus Valley Civilization (Harappan Civilization). Since the river was so close, the cities were built on giant platforms and elevated grounds. All soak pits and drains were occasionally cleared by workmen, and drains were provided with manholes at intervals for cleaning. Brick colonnades were discovered on the eastern, northern and southern edges. Also read: Drainage System of Harappan Civilization (Indus Valley), Great Public Bath and Granary of Indus Valley Civilization. The rich and the ruling class lived in the multi-roomed spacious houses and the poorer section lived in small tenements. The excellent drainage and sanitation systems are remarkable. well laid drainage system kept the cities clean. Probably the verandahs were decorated with wooden screws which have now perished. Indus Valley precisely took care of every measurement, weighing systems and equipment. These features of urbanization and town planning are further reflected in the general layout and architecture of the Harappan cities and towns. To drain the rainwater, gutters of pottery were made; a number of them have been found at Chanhudaro. The streets were broad varying from 9 feet to 34 feet. feet came to light which is accepted to have been used as an assembly hall for transacting matters of common interest. organization. Most of the houses had baths, wells and covered drains connected with street drains. The overall dimension of the Bath is 180 feet by 108 feet. Below principal streets and many lanes ran a main drain, 1 to 2 ft deep, covered with bricks or stones, and provided with sumps and inspection traps at regular intervals. For other parts sun-dried bricks were used. In later layers there was a marked decline in civic discipline. But unburnt sun-dried bricks were also used. A high pillared hall having an area of 80 sq. Slums grew around. The rectangular town planning What is proposed to be a granary is located on Mound F, lying on a massive mud brick foundation with a rectangular plan of 50m x 40m, with the length corresponding to the North-South axis. The citadel and the lower town were joined, although their relative directional position remained the same, the former to the west and the latter to the east. A proper network of the city was planned where drainage was given much importance. Altogether, the extent of the drainage system and the quality of the domestic bathing structures and drains are remarkable, and together they give the city a character of its own, particularly indicating some sort of highly effective municipal authority. The town lacked the general conception of a chess-board or gridiron pattern of planning. Did you know what happened on November 19 in World History? Streets varied from 9 feet to 34 feet in width and ran straight sometimes as far as half a mile. The main streets of Indus Valley ran from north to south and east to west intersecting one another at right angles. Another significant aspect of the Harappan town planning was the provision of segregated houses, a modern feature. Below the citadel in each city lay The elaborate drainage system is a unique feature of the Indus Valley civilization, the like of which has not yet been found in any other city of the same antiquity. The potters also worked in this part. These tenements housed the workers or the slaves who thrashed the corn to be preserved in the granary. This public bath was attached to the Mohenjo-Daro fort where upper class people lived. A few staircases of burnt bricks have, no doubt, been discovered but, as a rule, wooden staircases were used which have mostly perished. The ruins of the cities show remarkable town planning, and excellent system of drainage and sanitation of the Indus Valley Civilization. The city was the heart of the civilization. The cities were developed and constructed very close to the Indus River as the locals took benefit of the river in terms of cleaning and irrigation as the river was the only source for trading and commuting. The cities in the Indus Valley civilisation are well-known for their water supply systems, baked brick houses, clusters of large non-residential buildings, urban planning and elaborate drainage system. The higher and upper portion of the city was protected by a construction which looks like a fort. are comparable with the modern day city planning. The lower township was populated by the merchants, artisans and craftsmen, while the priestly and ruling class occupied the citadel. 15m x 6m and has three walls at the long ends with air between them pointing to hollow floors. Each lane had a public welt. Doors of entrance were fixed not on the front wall but on the side walls. Dr. Kosambi has provided an interpretation of the bathing pool and the adjoining rooms which is ingenuous. The excellent drainage and sanitation systems are remarkable. They were plain, utilitarian and comfortable to live. was unique to the Harappans and was not known in Mesopotamia or Egypt. The other part of the towns was lower in height than the former and common men lived in this area. Possibly, perforated lattices were used as windows or ventilators at the top of the wall. In addition to mud bricks, stone rubble, which is easily available in the neighbourhood, was liberally used for construction. The Indus towns possessed no general system of urban fortification, which was often massive, as at Kalibangan, but the gateways were simple entry-points to the towns. Banawali (Haryana) was one more fortified town of the Harappan civilization. The city was the heart of the civilization. Encroachment on public roads or lanes by building houses was not permitted. At Harappa and more clearly, at Mohenjo-Daro excavation has revealed the general shape of town planning system of the Indus Valley Civilization.

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