The water clock design we created is made out of water bottles. The Greeks and Romans advanced water clock design to include the inflow clepsydra with an early feedback system, gearing, and escapement mechanism, which were connected to fanciful automata and resulted in improved accuracy.

[23] Later they were also used to determine the exact holy days of pre-Islamic religions, such as the Nowruz, Chelah, or Yaldā – the shortest, longest, and equal-length days and nights of the years. [20] The same mechanism would be used by the Song dynasty polymath Su Song (1020–1101) in 1088 to power his astronomical clock tower, as well as a chain drive. [15] From about 200 BC onwards, the outflow clepsydra was replaced almost everywhere in China by the inflow type with an indicator-rod borne on a float. It is mentioned by Aristophanes in Lysistrata (lines 910–913) and other ancient literary sources. A detailed description with measurements is also recorded by the astronomer Lalla (8th century AD), who describes the ghati as a hemispherical copper vessel with a hole that is fully filled after one nadika. [32] A commonly used water clock was the simple outflow clepsydra. However, while modern timepieces may not be reset for long periods, water clocks were likely reset every day, when refilled, based on a sundial, so the cumulative error would not have been great. Further advances were made in Byzantium, Syria and Mesopotamia, where increasingly accurate water clocks incorporated complex segmental and epicyclic gearing, water wheels, and programmability, advances which eventually made their way to Europe. "A Walk Through Time." [44] The conversion device was called pangmok, and was placed above the inflow vessel that measured the time, the first device of its kind in the world. A water clock or clepsydra (Greek κλεψύδρα from κλέπτειν kleptein, 'to steal'; ὕδωρ hydor, 'water') is any timepiece by which time is measured by the regulated flow of liquid into (inflow type) or out from (outflow type) a vessel, and where the amount is then measured. [30] The Greeks considerably advanced the water clock by tackling the problem of the diminishing flow. In important cases, such as when a person's life was at stake, it was filled completely, but for more minor cases, only partially.
Also, a Greek astronomer, Andronicus of Cyrrhus, supervised the construction of his Horologion, known today as the Tower of the Winds, in the Athens marketplace (or agora) in the first half of the 1st century BC. The Greeks and Romans also came to depend on water clocks, and both cultures made improvements on the basic design.

It included a display of the zodiac and the solar and lunar orbits, and a pointer in the shape of the crescent moon which traveled across the top of a gateway, moved by a hidden cart and causing automatic doors to open, each revealing a mannequin, every hour. (June 19, 2009), National Association of Watch and Clock Collectors Inc. (June 19, 2009), Sherwood, Seth. – پژوهشهای ایرانی", "Qanat iscultural and social and scientific heritage in Iran", "Ancient Discoveries, Episode 11: Ancient Robots", "two falcon automata dropping balls into vases – Google Search", Transfer Of Islamic Technology To The West, Part II: Transmission Of Islamic Engineering, "When Time Flowed: The Story of the Clepsydra", "Administrative Timekeeping in Ancient Mesopotamia", "A Note on Waterclocks and the Authority of Texts", American Physical Society, 6th Annual Northwest Section Meeting, 21–22 May 2004, "Clepsydra of the Bronze Age from the Central Donbass", "Taiwan's Biggest Cuckoo Clock?


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